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Marketing

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Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers, for the purpose of selling the product or service. It is a critical business function for attracting customers.”
~ Wikipedia on marketing


Marketing serves 2 purposes: #1 Keep the consumers informed of prices and offerings and #2 To do brand enhancement and post-sales brand image reinforcement.”
~ jubo-jubo on marketing


Advertising (or advertizing)[1][2][3] is a form of marketing communication used to persuade an audience to take or continue some action, usually with respect to a commercial offering, or political or ideological support.”
~ Wikipedia on w:advertising


Contents

GloBBA marketing curriculum[edit]

Courses as of 2014

For all GloBBA students

  1. Services Marketing - w:Services marketing ( fi:palvelumarkkinointi
  2. Corporate Social Responsibility - w:Corporate responsibility ( w:fi:Yhteiskuntavastuu )
  3. Customer oriented operations planning (marketing)

Free choice studies:

  1. Nonprofit-markkinointi

Sales and marketing specialization track

  1. Creative Corporate and Marketing Communication
  2. Innovation Management for Global Competitiviness
  3. Strategic Business-to-Business Relationship Management
  4. Successful Event
  5. Business-to-Business Selling and Sales Management‎
w:Marketing Operations
Key concepts

w:Adobe • w:Automation • w:Benchmarking
Best Practices • Budget
w:Cisco Systems • CMO
Data Privacy • Data Quality
Data Warehouses • Database Marketing
Demand Generation
w:Digital Asset Management
w:Enterprise Marketing Management
Flow Charts • w:Forrester Research
w:Gartner • IDC • w:Infrastructure
Lead Generation • M&A Integration
Marketing Automation
Marketing Operations
Marketing Chief of Staff
w:Marketing Operations Management
Marketing Performance Measurement
Marketing Resource Management (MRM)
Process Optimization
Organizational Development
Process • Professional Development
Strategic Planning
w:Web Content Management


Services Marketing[edit]

Economical activity can be divided to services and w:goods. Often these are packaged together for greater utility for the consumer buying and higher wins for the business selling.

w:Service economy ( w:fi:Palveluyhteiskunta )is a huge share of the World w:GDP. w:Marketing ( w:fi:Markkinointi ) can be a valuable tool for both business purposes of the business selling the service and also from the viewpoint of the w:consumer

Services can be:

  1. Tangible service - w:Tangibility is the attribute of being easily detectable with the senses. ( Wikipedia )
  2. Intangible service w:Intangibility is used in marketing to describe the inability to assess the value gained from engaging in an activity using any tangible evidence. ( Wikipedia )
  3. or a mix of both.


w:Marketing mix consists of The w:4P's as follows:

  1. Product - What is it? What need does it satisfy?
  2. Price - How much? Price is a marketing decision ( sic. )
  3. Place - Where? Do I have to go to big mall or can I get it from corner shoppe? Webshoppe? Physical location? Both? ( win )
  4. Promotion - Advertising ( Image marketing, novelty marketing and price marketing )
How is the consumer informed of the
  • Availability of a product or service
  • Price levels
  • Service levels in an industry?


In services marketing there is also the w:Seven Ps, the last three being

  1. People
  2. Process and
  3. Physical evidence

Corporate Social Responsibility[edit]

“CSR is ethics in action”
~ jubo-jubo on CSR


Customer oriented operations planning (marketing)[edit]

Customer oriented operations planning (marketing)

  • Customer (also known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a good, service, product, or idea, obtained from a w:seller, w:vendor, or supplier for a monetary or other valuable consideration. ( Wikipedia )
  • Oriented
  • Operations The outcome of business operations is the harvesting of value from assets owned by a business. Assets can be either physical or intangible. ( Wikipedia )
  • Planning (also called forethought) is the process of thinking about and organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal. ( Wikipedia )
  • Marketing is the process of w:communicating the value of a product or service to w:customers. ( Wikipedia )

Customer oriented operations planning (marketing) - Session 1[edit]

  • The K-factor can be used to describe the growth rate of websites, apps, or a customer base.[4] ( Wikipedia )



Customer oriented operations planning (marketing) - Session 2[edit]

  • Feature - What it is?
  • Advantage - What will it do ?
  • Benefit - WIIFM ?

Customer oriented operations planning (marketing) - Session 3[edit]

  • A value proposition is a promise of value ( w:fi:Arvo (talous) ) to be delivered and a belief from the customer that value will be experienced. A value proposition can apply to an entire organization, or parts thereof, or customer accounts, or products or services. ( Wikipedia )

Terminology for COOPM marketing exam[edit]

Marketing strategy includes all basic and long-term activities in the field of marketing that deal with the analysis of the strategic initial situation of a company and the formulation, evaluation and selection of market-oriented strategies and therefore contribute to the goals of the company and its marketing objectives.[6] ( Wikipedia )
The marketing mix is a business tool used in marketing and by marketers. The marketing mix is often crucial when determining a product or brand's offer, and is often associated with the four P's: price, product, promotion, and place.[7]
In service marketing, however, the four Ps are expanded to the seven P's[8] or Seven P's to address the different nature of services. ( Wikipedia )


  • w:Market Segmentation is a w:marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad w:target market into subsets of w:consumers who have common needs, And then be designed and implemented to target these specific customer segments, addressing needs or desires that are believed to be common in this segment, using media that is used by the market segment. ( Wikipedia )
w:Undifferentiated segmentation
w:Differentiated segmentation


In w:marketing, positioning is the process by which marketers try to create an image or identity in the minds of their target market for its product, w:brand, or organization. ( Wikipedia )


  • Consumer behavior or buyer behaviour
w:Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. ( Wikipedia )


w:Niche marketing redirects to w:niche market which is a subset of the market on which a specific product is focusing. So the market niche defines the specific product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the w:price range, production quality and the w:demographics that is intended to impact. It is also a small market segment. ( Wikipedia )
Market Nicher is a company that sells a product or service that few other companies provide:
A true market nicher has a distinctive product that appeals strongly to a particular consumer segment. ( Soile )
An intermediary (or go-between) is a third party that offers intermediation services between two trading parties. The intermediary acts as a conduit for goods or services offered by a supplier to a consumer. Typically the intermediary offers some added value to the transaction that may not be possible by direct trading. ( Wikipedia )


Customer w:relationship marketing was first defined as a form of marketing developed from direct response marketing campaigns which emphasizes w:customer retention and satisfaction, rather than a dominant focus on sales transactions. ( Wikipedia )


w:Product lining is the w:marketing strategy of offering several related products for sale as individual units. Unlike w:product bundling, where several products are combined into one group, which is then offered for sale as a unit, product lining involves offering the products for sale separately. ( Wikipedia )


w:Pricing is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its products. Pricing factors are w:manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market condition, and quality of product. ( Wikipedia )
w:Pricing strategies for products or services encompass three main ways to improve profits. These are that the business owner can cut costs or sell more, or find more profit with a better pricing strategy. When costs are already at their lowest and sales are hard to find, adopting a better pricing strategy is a key option to stay viable. ( Wikipedia )
A plethora of models of pricing exist.


  • Variety seeking buyer behavior



  • Purchase process
For a business w:purchasing refers to a business or organization attempting to acquiring goods or services to accomplish the goals of its enterprise. ( Wikipedia )


A value proposition is a promise of value to be delivered and a belief from the customer that value will be experienced. A value proposition can apply to an entire organization, or parts thereof, or customer accounts, or products or services. ( Wikipedia )



  • Business Buyer Behavior ( purchasing & procurement )
w:Procurement is the acquisition of goods, services or works from an external source. It is favorable that the goods, services or works are appropriate and that they are procured at the best possible cost to meet the needs of the purchaser in terms of quality and quantity, time, and location (Weele 2010). ( Wikipedia )


Convenient procedures, products and services are those intended to increase ease in accessibility, save resources (such as time, effort and energy) and decrease frustration. ( Wikipedia )


  • Opinion leader


Derived demand is a term in economics, where w:demand for a w:factor of production or w:intermediate good occurs as a result of the demand for another intermediate or w:final good.





  • Complex buying behavior


Brand is the "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers."
Brand management is a communication function that includes analysis and planning on how that brand is positioned in the market, which target public the brand is targeted at, and maintaining a desired reputation of the brand. Developing a good relationship with target publics is essential for brand management. Tangible elements of brand management include the product itself; look, price, the packaging, etc. The intangible elements are the experience that the consumer takes away from the brand, and also the relationship that they have with that brand. A brand manager would oversee all of these things.
For more info see w:Category:Types of branding



  • Product Mix


A marketing channel is a set of practices or activities necessary to transfer the ownership of goods, and to move goods, from the point of production to the point of consumption and, as such, which consists of all the w:institutions and all the w:marketing activities in the marketing process. ( Wikipedia )


Product distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the w:marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by a consumer or business user, using direct means, or using indirect means with w:intermediaries.


A vertical market is a w:market in which vendors offers good and services specific to an w:industry, trade, w:profession, or other group of w:customers with specialized needs. It is distinguished from a w:horizontal market, in which vendors offer a broad range of goods and services to a large group of customers with wide range of needs, such as w:businesses as a whole, men, women, w:households, or, in the broadest horizontal market, everyone.


A horizontal market is a market which meets a given need of a wide variety of industries, rather than a specific one, in contrast to a vertical market.


  • Multichannel distribution systems
w:Multichannel marketing is marketing using many different marketing channels to reach a customer.




There are five main aspects of a promotional mix. These are:
  • w:Advertising ( w:fi:Mainonta ) - Presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Examples: Print ads, radio, television, billboard, direct mail, brochures and catalogs, signs, in-store displays, posters, motion pictures, Web pages, banner ads, and emails.
  • w:Personal selling - A process of helping and persuading one or more prospects to purchase a good or service or to act on any idea through the use of an oral presentation. Examples: Sales presentations, sales meetings, sales training and incentive programs for intermediary salespeople, samples, and telemarketing. Can be face-to-face selling or via telephone.
  • w:Sales promotion ( w:fi:Myynninedistäminen ) - Media and non-media marketing communication are employed for a pre-determined, limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product availability. Examples: Coupons, sweepstakes, contests, product samples, rebates, tie-ins, self-liquidating premiums, trade shows, trade-ins, and exhibitions.
  • w:Public relations ( w:fi:Tiedotus- ja suhdetoiminta ) - Paid intimate stimulation of supply for a product, service, or business unit by planting significant news about it or a favorable presentation of it in the media. Examples: Newspaper and magazine articles/reports, TVs and radio presentations, charitable contributions, speeches, issue advertising, and seminars.
  • w:Direct Marketing ( w:fi:Suoramarkkinointi ) is a channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses and nonprofits to communicate straight to the customer, with advertising techniques such as mobile messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising.
w:Corporate image Corporate image may also be considered as the sixth aspect of promotion mix. The Image of an organization is a crucial point in marketing. If the reputation of a company is bad, consumers are less willing to buy a product from this company as they would have been, if the company had a good image. ( Wikipedia )


Integerated marketing communications is an approach to w:brand communications where the different modes work together to create a seamless experience for the customer and are presented with a similar tone and style that reinforces the brand’s core message. Its goal is to make all aspects of marketing communication such as advertising, sales promotion, w:public relations, w:direct marketing, personal selling, online communications and w:social media work together as a unified force, rather than permitting each to work in isolation, which in turn maximizes their cost effectiveness. ( Wikipedia )



In w:business and w:marketing, “trade” refers to the relationship between w:manufacturers and w:retailers. Trade Promotion refers to marketing activities that are executed in w:retail between these two partners. Trade Promotion is a marketing technique aimed at increasing demand for products in w:retail stores based on special pricing, display fixtures, demonstrations, value-added bonuses, no-obligation gifts, and more. ( Wikipedia )


Competitive advantage seeks to address some of the criticisms of w:comparative advantage. w:Michael Porter proposed the theory in 1985. Competitive advantage theory suggests that states and businesses should pursue policies that create high-quality goods to sell at high prices in the market. ( Wikipedia )
  1. w:Market leader i.e. dominant player in a market. Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a w:brand, product, service, or firm, relative to competitive offerings. There is often a geographic element to the competitive landscape. In defining market dominance, you must see to what extent a product, brand, or firm controls a product category in a given geographic area. ( Wikipedia )
  2. w:Market challenger also redirects to w:Dominance (economics)
  3. Market follower



Creative Corporate and Marketing Communication[edit]

Creative Corporate and Marketing Communication - Session 1[edit]

  • Brand is the "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's product distinct from those of other sellers." ( Wikipedia )
  • Brand management is a communication function in marketing that includes analysis and planning on how that brand is positioned in the market, which target public the brand is targeted at, and maintaining a desired reputation of the brand ( Wikipedia )
  • The outward expression of a brand – including its name, trademark, communications, and visual appearance – is brand identity. ( Wikipedia on Brand identity )
  • Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of problem solving. ( Wikipedia )
  • A blog (a truncation of the expression weblog)[9] is a discussion or informational site published on the World Wide Web and consisting of discrete entries ("posts") typically displayed in reverse chronological order (the most recent post appears first). ( Wikipedia )
  • Blogger(.com) is a blog-publishing service that allows multi-user blogs with time-stamped entries. It was developed by Pyra Labs, which was bought by Google in 2003. Generally, the blogs are hosted by Google at a subdomain of blogspot.com. A user can have up to 100 blogs per account. ( Wikipedia )

Jubo-jubo's review of video editing software[edit]

Video editing software is application software which handles the post-production video editing of digital video sequences on a computer non-linear editing system (NLE). ( Wikipedia )

A non-linear editing system (NLE) is a video (NLVE) or audio editing (NLAE) digital audio workstation (DAW) system that performs non-destructive editing on source material. The name is in contrast to 20th century methods of linear video editing and film editing. ( Wikipedia )

Various editors exist for various platforms or so called software ecosystems

Wikipedia lists of video editing software[edit]

Lists of video editing software on the Internet[edit]

Runners up: ZS4 Video Editor, Wax, Cinefx Jashaka, w:Blender (software), Avidemux, MovieStorm, Movica, Video Spin, AVIedit, StoryBoard Pro Software, AVI Trimmer, Zwei-Stein, DVDVideoSoft Free, AVITricks Video Editor, DVD Knife and Mewa Film

FOSS and/or run on GNU/Linux video editors[edit]

Blender's features include 3D modeling, UV unwrapping, texturing, raster graphics editing, rigging and skinning, fluid and smoke simulation, particle simulation, soft body simulation, sculpting, animating, w:match moving, w:camera tracking, rendering, video editing and compositing. Alongside the modeling features it also has an integrated game engine. ( Wikipedia )

( list from Wikipedia list of free and open-source software packages - Section Video editing )

Video editors for OS X[edit]

Stock ticker symbol: AAPL

  • w:iMovie is installed on OS X by default
  • I have no working mac. iMovie is probably easy to use. Also innovativeness associated with their GUI
  • It is possible to install kdenlive also on OS X. It can handily be done with less then 10 lines of commands into the command line interface of choice, mainly installing the ports w:repository

Video editors for Windows[edit]

Creative Corporate and Marketing Communication - Session 2 - Integrated marketing communication[edit]

  • Corporate communication is a set of activities involved in managing and orchestrating all internal and external communications aimed at creating favourable point of view among stakeholders on which the company depends.[10]
It is the messages issued by a corporate organization, body, or institute to its audiences, such as employees, media, channel partners and the general public. Organizations aim to communicate the same message to all its stakeholders, to transmit coherence, credibility and ethic.
Corporate communications help organizations explain their mission, combine its many visions and values into a cohesive message to stakeholders. The concept of corporate communication could be seen as an integrative communication structure linking stakeholders to the organization. ( Wikipedia )
Marketing communications is the "promotion" part of the "marketing mix" or the "four Ps": price, place, promotion, and product. It can also refer to the strategy used by a company or individual to reach their target market through various types of communication. ( Wikipedia )
  • Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is the application of consistent brand messaging across both traditional and non-traditional marketing channels and using different promotional methods to reinforce each other. ( Wikipedia )
In this sense, a channel might be a retail store, a web site, a mail order catalogue, or direct personal communications by letter, email or text message. ( Wikipedia )
  • Global marketing is “marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives".[11] ( Wikipedia )
  • Advertising is a form of marketing communication used to persuade an audience to take or continue some action, usually with respect to a commercial offering, or political or ideological support. ( Wikipedia )
In Latin, ad vertere means "to turn toward".
Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which involves associating a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. ( Wikipedia )
See also

Creative Corporate and Marketing Communication - Session 3 - Introduction to making videos[edit]

Guerrilla marketing was originally a marketing strategy in which low-cost, unconventional means (including the use of graffiti, sticker bombing, flyer posting, etc.) were used in a (generally) localized fashion to draw attention to an idea, product, or service.

Today, guerrilla marketing may also include promotion through a network of individuals, groups, or organizations working to popularize a product or idea by use of such strategies as flash mobs, viral marketing campaigns, or internet marketing. ( Wikipedia )

Creative Corporate and Marketing Communication - Session 4 - Branding[edit]

  • Brand image vs. brand identity
  • Brand identity is the outward expression of a brand – including its name, trademark, communications, and visual appearance ( Wikipedia )
  • The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people, consisting of all the information and expectations associated with a product, service or the company(ies) providing them. ( Wikipedia )


    • Cobrands also called brand partnership,[12] is when two companies form an alliance to work together, creating marketing synergy. As described in Co-Branding: The Science of Alliance:[13] ( Wikipedia )
    • Brand licenses are a contractual agreement where a company lets another organisation use its brand on other products in exchange for a licensing fee. ( Wikipedia )
    • Cross marketing is an agreement for mutual promotion between two companies. One company for instance will include coupons for another company in its parcels to its clients if the other company will agree to include a promotion from the other company in its direct mails to its client base. ( Wikipedia )
  • Co-creation is a management initiative, or form of economic strategy, that brings different parties together (for instance, a company and a group of customers), in order to jointly produce a mutually valued outcome.[14]
    • Developing a good relationship with the target market is essential for brand management.
    • Tangible elements of brand management include the product itself; look, price, the packaging, etc.
    • The intangible elements are the experience that the consumer has had with the brand, and also the relationship that they have with that brand.
A brand manager would oversee all of these things. ( Wikipedia )


Creative Corporate and Marketing Communication - Session 5 - Digital marketing[edit]

Types of videos according to Lasse Rouhiainen:
  • Tutorial
  • Testimonial ( or case study is a better expression )
  • Product
  • Story
  • Lasse advices to maximize your touchpoints
A Touchpoint (contact point, customer contact, Moment of Truth, point of contact) describes the interface of a product, service or brand with customers/users, non-customers, employees and other stakeholders|, before, during and after a transaction. This may be applied in business-to-business as well as business-to-consumer environments. ( Wikipedia )

"Make many types of videos as well as a series of videos of some type to maximize the touchpoints." - Jubo-jubo


  • In online marketing a landing page, sometimes known as a "lead capture page" or a "lander", is a single web page that appears in response to clicking on a search engine optimized search result or an online advertisement. The landing page will usually display directed sales copy that is a logical extension of the advertisement, search result or link. ( Wikipedia )


Lasse uses:

Creative Corporate and Marketing Communication - Session 6 - Project plan presentations[edit]

Successful Event[edit]

Teacher: Anna Hankimaa

Successful Event - Session 1[edit]

It involves studying the brand, identifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually launching the event.
The process of planning and co-ordinating the event is usually referred to as event planning and can include budgeting, scheduling, site selection, acquiring necessary permits, coordinating transportation and parking, arranging for speakers or entertainers, arranging decor, event security, catering and emergency plans. ( Wikipedia )
This information can be presented in a variety of formats, including news, video, white papers, e-books, infographics, case studies, how-to guides, question and answer articles, photos, etc. ( Wikipedia )

What are the elements of a successful event?

  • Participants -> target group
  • Venue, location, logistics, catering and beverages
  • Promotion, communication
  • Financing, planning -> profit
  • Customer satisfaction -> customer experience -> feedback
  • Content -> program
  • Project management ->
    • Timeline
    • Task and responsibilities
    • Risk management
    • Contact with customer
  • Benchmarking with others / goal, target, purpose

Successful Event - Session 2[edit]

Event types:

Successful Event - Session 3[edit]

Bigger "lines" / principals

  • Know your audience
  • Know your objectives ( should be measurable )

Planning the programme

  • Fixed points -> derive the starting points from the fixed points
  • Theme -> consistency -> brand

Successful Event - Presentation on customer experience management[edit]

Successful Event - Presentation on customer experience management - Key definitions[edit]

“A Touchpoint (contact point, customer contact, point of contact) describes the interface of a product, service or brand with customers/users, non-customers, employees and other stakeholders, before, during and after a transaction. This may be applied in business-to-business as well as business-to-consumer environments.”
~ Wikipedia on touchpoints


This can include
  • awareness,
  • discovery,
  • attraction,
  • interaction,
  • purchase,
  • use,
  • cultivation and
  • advocacy.
Experience design (XD) is the practice of designing products, processes, services, events, and environments with a focus placed on the quality of the user experience and culturally relevant solutions.[18]
~ Wikipedia on experience design


“In its commercial context, experience design is driven by consideration of the moments of engagement, or touchpoints, between people and brands, and the ideas, emotions, and memories that these moments create.”


Commercial experience design is also known as customer experience design. In the domain of marketing, it may be associated with experiential marketing.
Experience designers are often employed to identify existing touchpoints and create new ones, and then to score the arrangement of these touchpoints so that they produce the desired outcome. ( Wikipedia on experience design in the commercial context )
It is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals."[19] ( Wikipedia )

Successful Event - Presentation on customer experience management - Technological solutions[edit]

  • Business process management (BPM) is a field in operations management that focuses on improving corporate performance by managing and optimising a company's business processes.[20] It can therefore be described as a "process optimization process." It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach.[21] These processes can impact the cost and revenue generation of an organization.
  • An issue tracking system (also ITS, trouble ticket system, support ticket, request management or incident ticket system) is a computer software package that manages and maintains lists of issues, as needed by an organization. ( Wikipedia )
A 2011 study conducted by Aberdeen Group showed that companies using customer feedback management services and social media monitoring have a 15% better customer retention rate.[22] ( Wikipedia )

Nonprofit-markkinointi[edit]

Read more on marketing:[edit]

References[edit]

  1. advertizing/advertizing. Collins English Dictionary Online.
  2. advertize. w:Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com
  3. advertize. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. Retrieved from TheFreeDictionary.com
  4. Fong, Richard (17 March 2014). "The K-Factor: The Secret Factor Behind Your Company’s Growth". Bliss Drive. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  5. Baker, Michael The Strategic Marketing Plan Audit 2008. ISBN 1-902433-99-8. p.3
  6. Homburg, Christian; Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer (2009): Marketing Management - A Contemporary Perspective (1st ed.), London.
  7. McCarthy, Jerome E. (1964). Basic Marketing. A Managerial Approach. Homewood, IL: Irwin. 
  8. Booms, Bernard H.; Bitner, Mary Jo (1981). "Marketing Strategies and Organization Structures for Service Firms". Marketing of Services. American Marketing Association: 47–51. 
  9. Blood, Rebecca (September 7, 2000). "Weblogs: A History And Perspective". 
  10. [[w:Riel, Cees B.M. van|]]; Fombrun, Charles J. (2007). Essentials Of Corporate Communication: Abingdon & New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415328265|.
  11. http://www.oup.com/uk/booksites/content/0199267529/student/glossary.htm#G Oxford University Press’ Glossary of Marketing Terms
  12. http://www.schmoozyfox.com/2010/03/brand-partnerships/
  13. "Competing for Customers and Capital". Southwest Airlines: Put a Little LUV in Your Logo!. customersandcapital.com. 
  14. Prahalad, C.K.; Ramaswamy, V. (2004) "Co-Creation Experiences: The Next Practice in Value Creation". w:Journal of Interactive Marketing. Volume 18, Number 3.
  15. Trattner, C., Kappe, F. (2013). "Social Stream Marketing on Facebook: A Case Study". International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing (IJSHC) 2 (1/2). 
  16. "TechSmith Announces the Jing Project.". Business Wire (Okemos, Michigan: The Gale Group, Inc.). 28 November 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  17. Riley, Duncan (2007-07-19). "The Jing Project: The 3 Legged Dog Of Screen Captures And Screencasting". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  18. Aarts, Emile H. L.; Stefano Marzano (2003). The New Everyday: Views on Ambient Intelligence. 010 Publishers. p. 46. ISBN 978-90-6450-502-7. 
  19. Farris, Paul W.; Neil T. Bendle; Phillip E. Pfeifer; David J. Reibstein (2010). Marketing Metrics: The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-13-705829-2.
  20. Theodore Panagacos (25 September 2012). The Ultimate Guide to Business Process Management: Everything You Need to Know and How to Apply It to Your Organization. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-1-4774-8613-9. 
  21. Ryan K. L. Ko (2009). A computer scientist's introductory guide to business process management (BPM), ACM Crossroads 15(4), ACM Press
  22. Omer, Minkara (2012-01-01). "Customer Experience Management: Using the Power of Analytics to Optimize Customer Delight". [[w:Aberdeen Group|]]. Retrieved 2012-02-12. Companies using customer feedback management and social media monitoring have a 15% better customer retention rate. [1] 
  23. Martha Rogers; Don Peppers (21 June 2005). Return on Customer: Creating Maximum Value From Your Scarcest Resource. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-385-51030-1. Retrieved 13 October 2012.