# Toolkit for Quantitative Surveys

Teacher: Jutta Heikkilä

Type of course: Free choice studies, toolbox courses in stastical methods and Quantitative research (Intenstive week courses)

Course code: MET8LF001

Course material: Quantitative analysis with SPSS ( Not quite sure of the exact title ) booklet by Jutta Heikkilä available only from the shop in Suomen Liikemiesten Kauppaopisto ( SLK )

**SPSS Statistics**is a software package used for statistical analysis. ( Wikipedia )

**Statistical inference**is the process of drawing conclusions from data that are subject to random variation, for example, observational errors or sampling variation. ( Wikipedia )

- In statistical inference of observed data of a scientific experiment, the
**null hypothesis**refers to a general or default position: that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena. ( Wikipedia )

- A
**statistical hypothesis test**is a method of statistical inference using data from a scientific study. In statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it has been predicted as unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, according to a pre-determined threshold probability, the significance level. ( Wikipedia )

**Cross tabulation**(or**crosstabs**for short) is a statistical process that summarizes categorical data to create a contingency table.

- A
**crosstab**is another name for a contingency table, which is a type of table created by crosstabulation. In survey research (e.g., polling, market research), a "crosstab" is any table showing summary statistics. Commonly, crosstabs in survey research are concatenations of multiple different tables. For example, the crosstab below combines multiple contingency tables and tables of averages. ( Wikipedia )

- A
**scatter plot**,**scatterplot**, or**scattergraph**is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. ( Wikipedia )

**Spearman's rank correlation coefficient**or**Spearman's rho**, named after Charles Spearman and often denoted by the Greek letter rho is a nonparametric measure of statistical dependence between two variables. It assesses how well the relationship between two variables can be described using a monotonic function. If there are no repeated data values, a perfect Spearman correlation of +1 or −1 occurs when each of the variables is a perfect monotone function of the other. ( Wikipedia )

- The
**Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient**(sometimes referred to as the**PPMCC**or**PCC**, or**Pearson's**) is a measure of the*r**linear correlation (dependence) between two variables**X*and*Y*, giving a value between +1 and −1 inclusive, where 1 is total positive correlation, 0 is no correlation, and −1 is total negative correlation. It is widely used in the sciences as a measure of the degree of linear dependence between two variables. It was developed by Karl Pearson from a related idea introduced by Francis Galton in the 1880s.,