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Difference between revisions of "Natural therapeutics"

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(→‎Ginger: + 'Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiberofficinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure', a 2015 study)
(→‎Migraines and cannabis: + 'Short- and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis on Headache and Migraine', a 2019 open access article published in w:The Journal of Pain of the w:American Pain Society and licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Line 665: Line 665:
''' Scientific articles about migraines and cannabis '''
''' Scientific articles about migraines and cannabis '''
* [ 'Emerging Role of (Endo)Cannabinoids in Migraine'], a 2018 mini-review, where they summarize recent discoveries and present new hypotheses on the role of cannabinoids in controlling trigeminal nociceptive system underlying migraine pain.
* [ 'Emerging Role of (Endo)Cannabinoids in Migraine'], a 2018 mini-review, where they summarize recent discoveries and present new hypotheses on the role of cannabinoids in controlling trigeminal nociceptive system underlying migraine pain.
* [ 'Short- and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis on Headache and Migraine'], a 2019 open access article published in [[w:The Journal of Pain|The Journal of Pain]] of the [[w:American Pain Society|American Pain Society]] placed under [ CC BY-NC-ND 4.0]
''' Compediums about migraines and cannabis '''
''' Compediums about migraines and cannabis '''

Revision as of 12:06, 28 November 2019

Nature provides us with many healing agents but these are often pushed to the periphery of public knowledge to ensure big pharma profits.



Ripe, ripening and raw blackberries

Blackberries kill antibiotic resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteria[1]. Irish teen awarded prize for discovery.[2]

Boswellia genus - Frankincense

A flowering Boswellia sacra tree

Boswellia is a genus of trees in the order Sapindales, known for their fragrant resin. The biblical incense w:frankincense was an extract from the resin of the tree Boswellia sacra, and is now produced also from B. frereana. (Wikipedia)

Scientific articles about frankincense healing

Links to articles about frankincense healing '


Cannabis is the oldest and most versatile medicine known to humankind.

Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are the main cannabis variants though most strains are mixes of these. A third cannabis line is the Cannabis ruderalis, a rugged northern cannabis that has adapted to flower even under northern long summer days.

The endocannabinoid system

Main article in wikipedia Endocannabinoid system

Endocannabinoids are synthesized by our own bodies from Arachidonic acid, an essential polyunsaturated Omega-6 fatty acid[3].

Scientific articles about the endocannabinoid system

Articles about the endocannabinoid system

The endocannabinoid receptors

Prevalence of endocannabinoid receptors in the human body. Photo credit: ThanasStudio

Human body contains 2 types of endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, but cannabinoids have interactions also on some other receptors.

CB1 receptors

CB1 receptors predominantly located in the nervous system, connective tissues, gonads, glands, and organs[4].

CB2 receptors

CB2 receptors, primarily found in the immune system and also present in the spleen, liver, heart, kidneys, bones, blood vessels, lymph cells, endocrine glands, and reproductive organs[4].


Anandamide, an endogenous ligand of CB1 and CB2

The two main endocannabinoids are Anandamide and 2-AG.


Anandamide was discovered in 1992 and it binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors. The name comes from the Sanskrit word 'Ananda' meaning 'bliss' and amide from its chemistry.

It has been referred to as the endocannabinoid version of THC.

Synthesis of Anandamide: Arachidonic acid -> Phosphatidylethanolamide + N-Acyltransferase -> N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine + Phospholipase D -> Anandamide[5]


2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor.

2-Arachidonoylglycerol aka. 2-AG was discovered in 1994-1995.

Synthesis of 2-AG: Arachidonic acid -> Phosphatidylinositol + Phospholipase Cs -> w:Diacylglycerol + Diacylglycerol lipase -> 2-AG[5]

N-Arachidonoyl dopamine

N-Arachidonoyl dopamine discovered in 2000.

2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether

2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether discovered in 2001.


Virodhamine discovered in 2002


Lysophosphatidylinositol is a contender to be the 6th endocannabinoid.


Female Cannabis indica plants. These are often good for pain relief producing a nice body stone.

Many people may know the 2 most prevalent phytocannabinoids, THC and CBD.

Studies about phytocannabinoids

Links about phytocannabinoids

List of known phytocannabinoids from Wikipedia:


Tetrahydrocannabinol is a partial agonist of CB1 located mainly in the central nervous system, and the CB2 receptor mainly expressed in cells of the immune system.

Tetrahydrocannabinol was found in 1964[7] and it is the main psychoactive compound that brings the 'high' most recreational users are chasing.


Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid THCA is the what cannabis plants produce to fend off insects from harming it. In pure form THCA is a clear translucent crystalline of white color.

THC is produced from the raw THCA by a process called decarboxylation. Basically means to heat the stuff over certain temperature.

THCA found in raw marijuana apparently has some health enhancing properties. The issue is being researched.


Cannabidiol has very low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of cannabinoid agonists.
Health benefits of CBD. Photo credit: ThanasStudio

Cannabidiol was isolated and identified from Cannabis sativa in 1940[7]. CBD is not psychoactive and it has the most medical applications of all phytocannabinoids.

“Cannabidiol has little affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of cannabinoid agonists.[8]

~ Wikipedia on Cannabidiol


Cannabidiolic Acid is the raw form. Decarboxylating CBDA yields CBD.


Cannabinol is a sleeping aid and has also other therapeutic qualities.



“Cannabigerol has been shown to promote apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in mice. It acts as an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and CB1 receptor antagonist.[9] It also binds to the CB2 receptor.[9]

~ Wikipedia on Cannabigerol

Links about CBG








Tetrahydrocannabivarin can be used to inhibit appetite.

Links about THCV








Cannabigerol Monomethyl Ether





Making cannabinoids with yeasts

Scientists have figured out how to splice the DNA of yeasts, so that they produce cannabinoids.[10]


Cannaflavins A and B are very potent anti-inflammatory agents and thus help lessen the pain sensation originating from inflammation.

Links about cannflavins

Terpenes in cannabis

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some w:insects.[11]

Links about terpenes found in cannabis

Synthetic cannabinoids

Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body — the same receptors to which THC and CBD attach – which are cannabinoids in cannabis plants. (Wikipedia)

Word of caution: Many synthetic cannabinoids are dangerous and should not be administered by others than medical professionals.

Links about synthetic cannabinoids

Arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) is a synthetic agonist of the CB1 receptor. (Wikipedia)

Other plants that contain compounds that are active in cannabinoid receptors

  1. Echinacea contains N-alkylamides, that function via cannabimemetics to provide immune-boosting and is also used to relieve anxiety, fatigue, migraines and arthritis.[12]
  2. Black pepper contains high levels of the terpene called β-caryophyllene (BCP). BCP functions as a cannabinoid, and has a binding affinity with the CB2 receptor.[12]
  3. Flax (linen) seeds produce cannabinoid-like compounds very similar to CBD.[12]
  4. Cacao contains lots of magnesium, but also "happy-brain" chemicals like theobromine, phenethylamine, tryptophan, and anandamide. Cacao affects the endocannabinoid system by deactivating the enzyme called FAAH. This enzyme breaks down the endocannabinoid known as anandamide.[12]
  5. Black truffles contain anandamide.[12]
  6. Helichrysum umbraculigerum contains cannabigerol (CBG).[12]
  7. Rhododendron anthopogonoides (Chinese Labrador) contains anthopogocyclolic acid and anthopogochromenic acid and five related compounds known as synthetic analogues of cannabinoids: cannabichromene (CBC) type, cannabicyclol (CBL) type and cannabicitran (CBT) type, have been isolated together with geranyl orsellinic acid. [12]
  8. Liverwort contains Perrottetinene, a cannabinoid similar to THC.[13][12]

Cannabis therapeutics

Rare 11-leafer Cannabis sativa
Male Cannabis sativa plants in late flowering stages.

Cannabis can be applied to treat a wide assortment of illnesses. In this case it is called medical cannabis.

Due to the inbuilt default to always take the safe route and also to backup the back of your fellow MD colleague the Wikipedia does not yield the right infos on how useful and versatile a medication cannabis is.

Research has been held back by arcane laws even as cannabis is the oldest medicine known to man and it should be gladly appreciated and not outlawed because of big pharma interests.

Medical cannabis research and information organizations

External links about cannabis as medicine

Literature about cannabis as a medicine

Anecdotal testimonies about medical cannabis

Alzheimer's disease and cannabis

Cannabis has been found to be beneficial for Alzheimer's sufferers. Especially true this is for THC which inhibits the formulation of toxic beta amyloid protein plaque on braincells which causes Alzheimer's disease.

Scientific research about Alzheimer's and cannabis

Links about Alzheimer's disease and cannabis

Antibiotic cannabis

Cannabis leaves found effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria.[14]

Studies about antibiotic cannabis

Links about antibiotic cannabis

Asthma and cannabis

Autism and cannabis

Autoimmune diseases and cannabis

Cannabis helps with many autoimmune diseases due to its anti-inflammatory and other properties.

Links about autoimmune diseases and cannabis

Rheumatoid arthritis and cannabis

Cannabis helps with Rheumatoid arthritis.

Studies about rheumatic diseases and cannabis

Links about Rheumatoid arthritis and cannabis

Lupus and cannabis

Cannabis helps with Systemic lupus erythematosus

Coeliac disease and cannabis

Cannabis helps with Coeliac disease.

Psoriasis and cannabis

You could also be looking for dermatitis, also known as eczema.

Cannabis helps with Psoriasis and when applied externally.

Cancers and cannabis

Key things everyone needs to know about cancers and cannabis

Warning: Smoking the cannabis as the method of cannabinoid delivery the smoke contains quite a few carcinogenic substances i.e. cancer inducing substances. See the section administering cannabis for alternatives to smoking it.

Internet is rife with stories about winning the battle against cancer with the help of phytocannabinoids. What does the science say?

Cannabis is...

  1. Anti-proliferative - cannabis is against tumor growth [15]
  2. Anti-metastatic - cannabis is against cancer spreading to other parts in the body because of metastatic activity[15]
  3. Anti-angiogenetic - cannabis is against new blood vein growth to tumor[15]
  4. Apoptotic - cannabis causes cancer cells to programmedly kill themselves via Apoptosis. [15]
  5. Pain relief - cannabis works very well against the somatic and nonsomatic pains brought on by cancer.
  6. Appetite stimulator - cannabis helps maintain a good appetite.
  7. Anti-nauseatic - cannabis helps with the chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting if you receive chemotherapy. World's first study of cannabis for chemotherapy's negative effects is underway in Australia. [16] [17]

Phytocannabinoids are harmless to healthy cannabinoid receptor containing cells.

Links about cannabis and cancer in general

Scientific articles

Ongoing and upcoming cannabis and cancer

"Official" information

Cannabis and cancers advocacy

Testimonies about cannabis and cancer

Cancer surviving cases with cannabis

Learn from videos by experts in phytocannabinoid treatment of cancers



See also: Cancers and turmeric (intra-article link)

Brain cancer and cannabis

A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine. (Wikipedia) A blastoma is a type of cancer, more common in children, that is caused by malignancies in precursor cells. (Wikipedia)

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive form of brain cancer, but it may potentially be treated with cannabis.[18]

In 2018 Insys Therapeutics announced the the FDA has given CBD an orphan drug designation (ODD) to CBD for treating gliomas.[19]

Studies about brain tumors and cannabis

Links about brain cancer and cannabis

Breast cancer and cannabis

Cervical cancer and cannabis

Colon cancer and cannabis

Langerhans cell sarcoma

Langerhans cell sarcoma is extremely rare.

Leukemia and cannabis

There are 2 main types of Leukemia:

Links about Lympoid and Myeloid leukemia and cannabis

Links about Lymphoid leukemia and cannabis

Links about Myeloid leukemia and cannabis

Liver cancer and cannabis

Lung cancer and cannabis

Laboratory and mice studies seem to indicate that THC can slow down the growth of lung cancer tumours from growing by binding to the same receptors as epidermal growth factor (EGF): the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR).

Lung cancer and cannabis in the media


Hodgkin's lymphoma is a type of lymphoma in which cancer originates from a specific type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. (Wikipedia)

Oral cancer and cannabis


w:Osteosarcoma is a bone cancer.

Ovarian cancer and cannabis

Links to studies about ovarian cancer and cannabis

Links to information about ovarian cancer and cannabis

Pancreatic cancer and cannabis

Prostate cancer and cannabis

Cannabis helps with prostate cancer.

Skin cancer and cannabis

Melanoma and cannabis

Testicular cancer and cannabis

Thyroid cancer and cannabis

Crohn's disease and cannabis

Study shows THC helps with Crohn's disease.

Epilepsy and cannabis

Full extract cannabis oil in a syringe for easy dosing and travel is usually administered in drops to the gums or under the tongue.

Cannabis can be used to treat epilepsy.

Studies about epilepsies and cannabis

Links about epilepsies and cannabis

Dravet syndrome and cannabis

w:Dravet syndrome, previously known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a type of w:epilepsy with seizures that are often triggered by hot temperatures or w:fever.

In a 2018 trial 'A prospective open‐label trial of a CBD/THC cannabis oil in dravet syndrome' the reasearchers found that when treating Dravet syndrome with 50:1 CBD:THC-ratio oil "There was a statistically significant improvement in quality of life, reduction in EEG spike activity, and median motor seizure reduction of 70.6%, with 50% responder rate of 63%.". article 'Cannabis oil with THC may help treat kids with severe epilepsy' reporting on the study

Dermatological conditions and cannabis

#Psoriasis and cannabis is listed under autoimmune diseases.


Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and stasis dermatitis. (Adapted from Wikipedia)

Migraines and cannabis

It has been suggested that clinical endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome (CEDS) may be causing migraines. Many studies found medical cannabis as an effective prophylaxis against migraine attacks, especially the high CBD strains.

Scientific articles about migraines and cannabis

Compediums about migraines and cannabis

Links to articles about migraines and cannabis

Pain treatment with cannabis

“You just don't feel like thinking about the pain.”

~ Apotheker Jukeboksi on somatic pain relief with cannabis

“There is more to it than that.”

~ Science on above quote

Cannabis is anti-inflammatory which helps relieve some of the pain. Pain is a signal of inflammation so counter-acting inflammation causing things cannabis naturally helps lower the pain.

Scientific articles about cannabis as an anti-pain agent

Links about cannabis as an anti-pain agent

Collections of information on pain management with cannabis

Parkinsons disease and cannabis

Scientific studies on the issue of Parkinsons and cannabinoids

Compendiums of research

Articles in media

Non-somatic issues with cannabis

Cannabis can help with various non-somatic problems such as psychiatry, depression and PTSD.

Depression and cannabis

Psychosis and cannabis

Studies about psychosis and cannabis

Articles about psychosis and cannabis

PTSD and cannabis

Studies about medical cannabis for PTSD

Scientific studies about cannabis and PTSD

Links about medical cannabis for PTSD


“In medicine, sclerosis is the stiffening of a structure, usually caused by a replacement of the normal organ-specific tissue with connective tissue.”

~ Wikipedia on Sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cannabis

Cannabis helps with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also known as Lou Gehrig's disease and motor neurone disease (MND).

Multiple sclerosis (MS) and cannabis

Cannabis is very good against Multiple sclerosis. Prince Charles knew of this way back in 1998[20].

Scientific articles about MS and cannabis

Compendiums of knowledge about MS and cannabis

Links about MS and cannabis

Seizures and cannabis

Strokes and cannabis

Traumatic brain injury and cannabis

Cannabis can help in healing from TBI

Administering cannabis

There are various other ways to administer cannabis methods besides smoking it:

Vaping cannabis

Cannabis concentrate known as "shatter"
  • Vaping (short for vaporizing), a method where the plant material is heated hot enough for the cannabinoids to become gaseous but cold enough that the plant matter does not combust and thus avoiding the carcinogens that come from burning the plant matter. Vaping is also the preferred method to consume concentrates.


Oral cannabis

  • Edibles, tinctures and cannabis oil may be administered orally. Cannabinoids are soluble to alcohol and to fat and cannabis can be infused into many forms of edibles, but the problem is with efficiency as your stomach acids will destroy a lot of the cannabinoids.


Rectal cannabis

  • Rectal - some doctors recommend taking cannabis rectally as this is method of administering allows you to take very large doses efficiently.[21]


Topical cannabis

  • Topicals - for some skin affecting conditions this is a good way to administer the medicine. Many skin condition sufferers praise the combination of cannabis and coconut oil to make a topical to apply to the affected skin.

Naval cannabis

Right under the belly button there is a gland called Pechoti, which some say is a very good way to administer medical cannabis. Naval administration of medicine is a method used by the ancient Ayurvedic medicine.



A dandelion flower

Dandelion root concentrates found effective against chemo-resistant melanoma and leukemia.[22]

"Since the commencement of this project, we have been able to successfully assess the effect of a simple water extract of dandelion root in various human cancer cell types, in the lab and we have observed its effectiveness against human T cell leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, pancreatic and colon cancers, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. Furthermore, these efficacy studies have been confirmed in animal models (mice) that have been transplanted with human colon cancer cells."[23]

Research centers of medicinal dandelion root

Scientific studies about dandelion root and cancers

Summary of known dandelion health benefits

Links about dandelion and cancers



Elderberries (or Elder) belong to the genus w:Sambucus and may be useful for various kinds of flu.


Ginger plant

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice and a folk medicine.[24]

Ginger is in the family Zingiberaceae, which also includes turmeric (Curcuma longa), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), and galangal.[24]

Links about ginger

Chemistry of ginger

The characteristic fragrance and flavor of ginger result from volatile oils that compose 1-3% of the weight of fresh ginger, primarily consisting of zingerone, ls, and gingerols with [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) as the major pungent compound.[25] Zingerone is produced from gingerols during drying, having lower pungency and a spicy-sweet aroma.[25] Shagoals are more pungent and have higher antioxidant activity but not found in raw ginger, but is formed from gingerols during heating, storage or via acidity.[25][26]

Fresh ginger also contains an enzyme zingibain which is a cysteine protease and has similar properties to rennet.[26]

Ginger and rheumatoid arthiritis

Gingerol seems to be effective in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis.[27]

~ Wikipedia on Gingerol and rheumatoid arthritis as of 2019-11

Ginger and cancers

“Gingerol and its analogues have a favourable toxicity profile, but are cytotoxic towards a range of cancer cell lines including blood cancer and lung cancer.[28]

~ Wikipedia on Gingerol and blood cancer and lung cancer as of 2019-11

“Gingerol has been investigated w:in vitro for its effect on cancerous tumors of the bowel,[29][30] breast tissue,[31] ovaries,[32] and pancreas,[33] with positive results.”

~ Wikipedia on Gingerol as of 2019-11

Ginger rhizome (root)

11 health benefits of ginger at (with sources)

  1. Ginger contains w:Gingerol, a substance with powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.[34]
  2. Ginger can treat many forms of nausea, especially morning sickness and chemo-induced nausea[34]
  3. Ginger may reduce muscle pain and soreness [34]
  4. Ginger can help with w:osteoarthritis [34]
  5. Ginger may lower blood sugars [34]
  6. Ginger can help treat chronic indigestion [34]
  7. Ginger powder may significantly reduce menstrual pain [34]
  8. Ginger may lower cholesterol levels [34]
  9. Ginger contains gingerol, which may help to prevent cancers [34]
  10. Ginger may improve brain functioning and protect against Alzheimer's disease [34]
  11. Gingerol can help lower risk of infections [34]


Pineapple is effective cough medicine due to its Bromelain content.

Pineapple fruit and it's stem contain Bromelain, an enzyme with anti-cough properties.

In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that bromelain exhibits various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities.[35] Bromelain accounts for many therapeutic benefits like the treatment of angina pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis, surgical trauma, and thrombophlebitis, debridement of wounds, and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics.[35]


Spirulina powder at 400X, wet mount.

Spirulina is a biomass of a (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and other animals. The two species are Arthrospira platensis and A. maxima. ( Wikipedia )

Spirulina is extremely high in protein, contains an almost perfect balance of Omega-3 to Omega-6, and is rich in the following minerals: iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, selenium and zinc. It also contains high levels of vitamin A, C, E, K, B6, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin and thiamin. [36]

Spirulina has been found to help against [36]


Stevia is a sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana, native to Brazil and Paraguay.

Stevia and Lyme disease

Lyme disease also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium named Borrelia spread by ticks.

Stevia works against the Lyme disease.[37]

Links about stevia and Lyme disease



Thyme contains w:thymol, which is a natural antibiotic. Oil of thyme, the essential oil of common thyme (w:Thymus vulgaris), contains 20–54% thymol and other substances. (Wikipedia)


Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) of genus Curcuma.
Turmeric, used as spice, medicine and dye is made of ground roots of Curcuma Longa.

Turmeric contains curcumin, a curcuminoid.

Studies regarding turmeric

Cancers and turmeric

Curcumin has been found to have anti-cancer properties. Curcumin interferes with cancer via multiple cell signaling pathways, including cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, survival, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation[38].

See also: Cancers and cannabis (intra-article link)

Alzheimer's and turmeric

  • 'Optimized Turmeric Extract Reduces β-Amyloid and Phosphorylated Tau Protein Burden in Alzheimer’s Transgenic Mice' suggests that turmeric may be useful for Alzheimer's sufferers as it has been shown to inhibit beta amyloid aggregation and secretation in mice.[39]

See also: Alzheimer's and cannabis (intra-article link)

Information sources on natural therapeutics


  4. 4.0 4.1
  5. 5.0 5.1
  7. 7.0 7.1
  8. Mechoulam, Raphael; Peters, Maximilian; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Hanuš, Lumír O. (2007). "Cannabidiol – Recent Advances". Chemistry & Biodiversity 4 (8): 1678–92. PMID 17712814. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790147. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Cascio, MG; Gauson, LA; Stevenson, LA; Ross, RA; Pertwee, RG (2010). "Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT1A receptor antagonist". British Journal of Pharmacology 159 (1): 129–41. PMC 2823359. PMID 20002104. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00515.x. 
  11. Eberhard Breitmaier (2006). Terpenes: Flavors, Fragrances, Pharmaca, Pheromones. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 9783527609949. doi:10.1002/9783527609949. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3
  24. 24.0 24.1
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  26. 26.0 26.1
  27. Funk, Janet L.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Oyarzo, Janice N.; Timmermann, Barbara N. (2009). "Comparative Effects of Two Gingerol-Containing Zingiber officinale Extracts on Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis". Journal of Natural Products 72 (3): 403–7. PMC 2837120. PMID 19216559. doi:10.1021/np8006183. 
  28. Semwal, RB; Semwal, DK; Combrinck, S; Viljoen, AM. "Gingerols and shogaols: Important nutraceutical principles from ginger". Phytochemistry 117: 554–68. PMID 26228533. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.07.012. 
  29. "Ginger 'could halt bowel cancer'". w:BBC News. October 29, 2003. 
  30. Jeong, C.-H.; Bode, A. M.; Pugliese, A.; Cho, Y.-Y.; Kim, H.-G.; Shim, J.-H.; Jeon, Y.-J.; Li, H. et al. (2009). "[6]-Gingerol Suppresses Colon Cancer Growth by Targeting Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase". Cancer Research 69 (13): 5584–91. PMID 19531649. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-0491. 
  31. Lee, H; Seo, E; Kang, N; Kim, W (2008). "[6]-Gingerol inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells". The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 19 (5): 313–9. PMID 17683926. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.05.008. 
  32. Rhode, Jennifer; Fogoros, Sarah; Zick, Suzanna; Wahl, Heather; Griffith, Kent A; Huang, Jennifer; Liu, J Rebecca (2007). "Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 7: 44. PMC 2241638. PMID 18096028. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-7-44. 
  33. Park, Yon Jung; Wen, Jing; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young (2006). "[6]-Gingerol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Death of Mutant p53-expressing Pancreatic Cancer Cells". Yonsei Medical Journal 47 (5): 688–97. PMC 2687755. PMID 17066513. doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.5.688. 
  34. 34.00 34.01 34.02 34.03 34.04 34.05 34.06 34.07 34.08 34.09 34.10
  35. 35.0 35.1
  36. 36.0 36.1